Send Firebase cloud messages with a Spring boot project

Firebase is a fantastic product suite, but its documentation can sometimes be unclear. Although the documentation is rich, it can be difficult to see how to apply it in a specific case – languages and stacks vary, and I’ve found it requires a lot of time to see how to go from the documentation to implementation in your project.

Here, I’m going to document how I managed to set up my Spring boot backend project with Firebase Cloud Messaging functionality. For now, I won’t discuss how to receive them on the mobile app, or how to set up the Firebase project; there is sufficient documentation for these aspects online. (See https://firebase.google.com/docs/cloud-messaging/android/receive?authuser=0 for the setup of an Android client app).

Prerequisites

How to set up a Spring Boot application with Firebase Cloud Messaging

  1. Go to https://console.firebase.google.com/project/_/settings/serviceaccounts/adminsdk and select your project. Under Service accounts tab, click on button “Generate new private key”. Save this in your project, under the name “firebase-privateKey.json”. (Be careful: this is a sensitive file. Never commit it under public version control, for instance).
  1. In your project, configure your build.gradle as follows. This contains dependencies for Spring boot starter web, and Firebase admin. (If you’re using Maven, just add these dependencies like any others).

plugins {
    id 'java'
    id 'org.springframework.boot' version '2.1.1.RELEASE'
    id 'io.spring.dependency-management' version '1.0.8.RELEASE'
}

group 'fr.nevechris'
version '1.0-SNAPSHOT'

sourceCompatibility = 1.13

repositories {
    mavenCentral()
}

dependencies {
    implementation 'org.springframework.boot:spring-boot-starter-web'
    implementation 'com.google.firebase:firebase-admin:6.12.2'
}
  1. Create your backend’s Application.java class as follows:
package fr.nevechris.firebasespringpoc;

import com.google.auth.oauth2.GoogleCredentials;
import com.google.firebase.FirebaseApp;
import com.google.firebase.FirebaseOptions;
import org.springframework.boot.SpringApplication;
import org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.SpringBootApplication;

import java.io.FileInputStream;
import java.io.FileNotFoundException;
import java.io.IOException;

@SpringBootApplication
public class Application {

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        SpringApplication.run(Application.class, args);
        initializeFirebaseAdmin();
    }

    private static void initializeFirebaseAdmin() {
        try {
            FileInputStream serviceAccount =
                    new FileInputStream("firebase-privateKey.json"); // Path of private key saved in previous step

            FirebaseOptions options = new FirebaseOptions.Builder()
                    .setCredentials(GoogleCredentials.fromStream(serviceAccount))
                    .setDatabaseUrl("YOUR DATABASE URL AS SHOWN IN CONSOLE")
                    .build();

            FirebaseApp.initializeApp(options);
        } catch (FileNotFoundException e) {
            System.out.println("Firebase key not found! Firebase Admin functionality will not work.");
        } catch (IOException e) {
            System.out.println("Error initialising Firebase Admin! Firebase Admin functionality will not work.");
        }
    }
}

Notes:

  • The database URL you need to specify is the database URL you see in the Java code snippet, in the Firebase console (see screenshot above).
  • The private key, passed in argument to the constructor of the FileInputStream, is the one you saved in previous step. Update path as necessary.
  1. Create a controller for the sake of testing. (This will not compile until you’ve done step 5 – for those like myself who like following tutorials with their brain off).
package fr.nevechris.firebasespringpoc;

import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RequestMapping;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RestController;

@RestController
public class MessageController {

    private MessageService service;

    public MessageController(MessageService service) {
        this.service = service;
    }

    @RequestMapping("/send-message")
    public void sendSampleMessage() {
        service.sendFirebaseMessage();
    }
}
  1. Create a service which will send the message.
package fr.nevechris.firebasespringpoc;

import com.google.firebase.messaging.FirebaseMessaging;
import com.google.firebase.messaging.FirebaseMessagingException;
import com.google.firebase.messaging.Message;
import org.springframework.stereotype.Service;

@Service
public class MessageService {

    public void sendFirebaseMessage() {
        // This registration token is the token of the device you're sending the message to. It's obtained when a
        // device registers with Firebase. In an Android app, it's accessible as follows:
        // FirebaseInstanceId.getInstance().getInstanceId().addOnCompleteListener(new OnCompleteListener<InstanceIdResult>() {
        //      @Override
        //      public void onComplete(@NonNull Task<InstanceIdResult> task) {
        //          if (!task.isSuccessful()) {
        //              Log.w(TAG, "getInstanceId failed", task.getException());
        //              return;
        //          }
        //          String token = task.getResult().getToken();
        //      }
        //  });
        String registrationToken = "whatever-your-device-registration-token-is";

        // Data of your message. Key/value pairs accessible from an Android client as follows:
        // instanceOfRemoteData.getData().get("firstName")
        Message message = Message.builder()
                .putData("firstName", "James")
                .putData("lastName", "Bond")
                .setToken(registrationToken)
                .build();

        // Send the message with registration token and body to device.
        String response = null;
        try {
            response = FirebaseMessaging.getInstance().send(message);
        } catch (FirebaseMessagingException e) {
            System.out.println("Error sending Firebase message: " + e.getMessage());
        }
    }
}

That’s it! Fire up your Spring boot app; now, when you send a request to http://localhost:8080/send-message , if your registration token is associated to a device, it will receive a message.

I hope this helped; the source code is available on my GitHub. https://github.com/ChrisLeNeve/fcm-springboot-poc